class 9 history chapter 1 notes
Chapter 1 of CBSE Class 9 History sheds light on how the monarchy in France met its demise as a consequence of the French Revolution. The chapter also explores various aspects such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man, notions of equality and freedom, and anti-colonial movements in different regions like India, China, Africa, and South America.
class 9 history chapter 1 notes
The Class 9 History Notes for Chapter 1 serve as a valuable resource for students, allowing them to study efficiently and gain a comprehensive understanding of every concept covered in the Class 9 History syllabus. These notes encompass all the significant topics, facilitating quick revision. By referring to these CBSE Class 9 History notes for Chapter 1, students can enhance their exam preparation and achieve higher marks in their examinations.
In the year 1789, as the first rays of sunlight emerged, a sense of alarm gripped the city of Paris. Rumors began to circulate that the King was preparing to unleash a violent attack on the citizens. Consequently, people started to congregate and, in their search for arms, resorted to vandalizing several government buildings. The commander of the Bastille met his demise during the armed conflict, leading to the release of prisoners. The Bastille symbolized the despotic power wielded by the King, and it was widely despised by the populace. The soaring price of bread further fueled discontent, triggering a series of events that culminated in the execution of the King in France.
During the late eighteenth century, French society underwent significant transformations. In 1774, Louis XVI ascended to the throne of France, only to be confronted with a financially drained country due to wars and conflicts. Under Louis XVI's reign, France provided assistance to the thirteen American colonies in their fight for independence from Britain. To meet the growing financial demands, taxes were raised, burdening the populace with increased expenses related to maintaining the army, the court, and running government offices and universities. The society of France in the eighteenth century was divided into three estates. The feudal system, rooted in the Middle Ages, played a role in organizing these estates. Peasants constituted 90 percent of the population, yet only a small fraction of them owned the land they cultivated. The remaining 60 percent of land ownership was concentrated among nobles, the Church, and wealthier members of the third estate. The first two estates, comprised of the clergy and nobility, enjoyed inherent privileges exempting them from taxes and granting them feudal rights. Conversely, all members of the third estate were obligated to pay taxes to the state, including a direct tax known as "taille," as well as numerous indirect taxes imposed on everyday items such as salt and tobacco.
The struggle to survive became increasingly challenging due to the population growth, which led to a surge in the demand for food grains. Unfortunately, the production of grains failed to keep pace with this demand, resulting in a rapid rise in bread prices. Furthermore, the wage gap between the poor and the rich widened due to the meager earnings of laborers. Instances of drought or hail further exacerbated the situation by adversely affecting the harvest.
class 9 history chapter 1 revesion
During this time, a burgeoning middle class envisioned an end to the prevailing privileges. Peasants actively participated in revolts against oppressive taxes and food scarcity. Meanwhile, the third estate witnessed the emergence of a prosperous social group, known as the middle class, which acquired wealth through overseas trade expansion and the production of silk and wool textiles that were either exported or purchased by the affluent segments of society. The third estate also encompassed professionals like lawyers and administrative officials, who held positions based on their merit rather than their birth. Educated and enlightened, these groups believed in the abolition of privileges based on birth and advocated for a society where one's social standing would depend on
individual merit. Philosophers like Rousseau proposed a new form of government based on a social contract between the people and their representatives, while Montesquieu advocated for a division of power within the government, separating the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. This model of government was subsequently implemented in the United States. In response to mounting expenses, Louis XVI intended to impose further taxes, thereby intensifying the unrest among the populace.